Defense Technology® (DT) is a Wyoming-based arms manufacturer with a focus on supplying chemical weapons to law enforcement, including many used in 2020 in Portland, Oregon. Boasting a catalog of 275 weapons including sprays, fogs, shot shells, and grenades with active agents including pepper oil (OC, Oleoresin Capsicum), phenacyl chloride (CN), 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (CS), hexachloroethane (HC), terepthalic acid (TPA), potassium chlorate (KClO3), and cyclohexanone (CH2)5CO), DT has lined the pockets of multi-millionare Warren Kanders while arming up law enforcement agencies around the country.

Although Defense Technology® has gone through multiple restructurings and exists within a seven-layer-salad of subsidiaries under BAE Systems, many of its signature products have remained remarkably consistent over the last three decades, with only minor cosmetic changes and persistent item numbering. Despite the consistency, however, DT has undertaken a concerted effort to reduce or remove hazardous warnings from their Safety Data Sheets, despite federal regulation under Occupational Safety and Health Standards.

Nowhere is this more evident than their Hexachloroethane (HC) smoke grenades, such as the the Maximum HC Smoke Military-Style Canister.

HC was designed as an obscurant smoke in the early 1930s by the US Army Chemical Warfare Service but was quickly understood to be a poisonous chemical agent and has since been replaced throughout the US Armed Services.

HC itself is listed as hazardous by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Transportation, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and National Toxicology Program and has significant human and environmental health consequences.

A more dire result of the use of HC grenades, however, is that they produce a high volume (> 75% of all products w/w) of gaseous ZnCl2, a lethal vapor, during the focal reaction. Additionally, given the excessive heat (> 1000 C) and corrosive nature of involved compounds, a bevvy of toxic by-products are also generated including carbon monoxide (CO), phosgene (COCl2), hexachlorobenzene (C6Cl6), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and chlorine (Cl2).

2020 DAPPER Stats