References

Literature Cited

Allen, R. B. 1974a. Dying man’s pleas related by convict. The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) 7 June 1974.

Allen, R. B. 1974b. Move isolates rebel convicts. The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) 10 October 1974.

Allen, R. B. 1975a. Jurors hear witness to prison gas death. Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) 7 January 1975.

Allen, R. B. 1975b. Unavailability of medical aid at “Rock” cited. The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) 10 December 1975.

Applegate, R. 1969. Riot Control - Materiel and Technique. Stackpole Books. Harrisburg, PA.

Applegate, R. 1970. Guns and the Law: Pepper foggers. Guns. September 1970 30-31.

Associated Press. 1969a. Negroes and police battle in Illinois. 11 August 1969. Sourced from the Palladium-Item (Richmond, Indiana) 11 August 1969.

Associated Press. 1969b. Pepper fogger stops unruly youth in Seattle. 17 August 1969.

Associated Press. 1972a. Thousands demonstrate against mines. 11 May 1972. Sourced from the Argus-Leader (Sioux Falls, South Dakota) 11 May 1972.

Associated Press. 1972b. Guards arrive on campus at Minnesota. 11 May 1972. Sourced from the Argus-Leader (Sioux Falls, South Dakota) 11 May 1972.

Associated Press. 1974. Melee breaks out at NHRA Nationals. 2 September 1974. Sourced from the Courier (Waterloo, Iowa) 2 September 1974 and the Billings Gazette (Billings, Montana) 3 Septemer 1974.

Associated Press. 1982. Protest at factory. 23 March 1982. Sourced from the Lexington Herald (Lexington, Kentucky) 23 March 1982.

Carbone, G. M. 2017. Brown & Sharpe and the Measure of American Industry: Making the Precision Machine Tools That Enabled Manufacturing, 1833-2001. McFarland & Company, Inc., Jefferson NC.

Coffey, I. 1975a. Veteran guard terms gassing “unjustified”. The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) 26 June 1975.

Coffey, I. 1975b. Trio gives testimony in fatal gassing trial. The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) 27 June 1975.

Courier-Journal. 1982. Fire-training smoke wasn’t tainted. The Courier-Journal (Louisville, Kentucky). 10 January 1982.

Department of Homeland Security. 2020. DHS Announces New Task Force to Protect American Monuments, Memorials, and Statues. 1 July 2020. https://www.dhs.gov/news/2020/07/01/dhs-announces-new-task-force-protect-american-monuments-memorials-and-statues.

Eckhold, L. 1971. Offer $5,000 reward for Iowa City blast arrests; Protest leaders schedule workshops aimed at U of I. Des Moines Register (Des Moines, Iowa) 8 May 1971.

Flanigan, K. 2020. Docs: Homeland Security’s Portland protest mission called “Operation Diligent Valor”. KOIN. 23 July 2020. https://www.koin.com/news/protests/docs-homeland-securitys-portland-protests-mission-called-operation-diligent-valor/.

Goldstein, R. 1998. Rex Applegate, 84, Instructor of Deadly Skills. The New York Times 27 July 1998.

Graham, S. 2013. Foucault’s boomerang: the new military urbanism. openDemocracy, 14 February 2013. https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/opensecurity/foucaults-boomerang-new-military-urbanism/

Hayes, E. 1970. Grand jury riot report reviewed. Oakland Tribune. September 4 1970.

Hemmings, J. 2019. Amazing Pictures of Tunnel Rats: The Warriors Who Infiltrated Underground Tunnels In The Vietnam War. War History Online. https://www.warhistoryonline.com/instant-articles/the-tunnel-rats-vietnam-war.html

Hobbs, C. 1974. Jury to probe prison gassing. The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) 10 October 1974.

Johnson, J. 1974. Permanent gassing ban under study. The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) 25 May 1974.

Johnson, J. 1975. Gassing death jury winds up testimony. The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) 18 January 1975.

Judd, A. 1981. State fire marshal begins proble into illness during rescue session. The Courier-Journal (Louisville, Kentucky). 22 December 1981.

Lehrer, G. H. 1968. Viet Cong Tunnels. The Military Engineer. Vietnam Commemorative Issue. 61 - 63. First Published July-August 1968.

Linh, N. T. 1966. Personal Observations. Interviewed by Horst Faas in the New York Times. 13 October 1977. https://www.nytimes.com/1977/10/13/archives/vietnamese-recalls-agonies-of-tunnel-war.html.

Lorentzen, C. 2018. The Riot Stuff. Bookforum Summer 2018. https://www.bookforum.com/print/2502/covering-the-chaos-outside-1968-s-presidential-conventions-19685.

Los Angeles Times. 1969. People’s Park not with the battle so far. Printed in The Delta Democrat-Times (Greenville, Mississippi) 20 November 1969.

McArdle, T. 2018. How three violent days gripped a black Miami neighborhood as Nixon was nominated in 1968. The Washington Post. 7 August 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/retropolis/wp/2018/08/07/how-three-violent-days-gripped-a-black-miami-neighborhood-as-nixon-was-nominated-in-1968/.

Nixalite. 2009. TF-35 Thermal Fogger Brochure. https://www.nixalite.com/SiteContent/Documents/PDFs/TF35.pdf

Nixalite. 2009. TF-35 Thermal Fogger Owners Manual. https://www.nixalite.com/SiteContent/Documents/PDFs/IGEBA%20TF35%20OWNERS%20MANUAL.pdf

Rottman 2006. Viet Cong and NVA Tunnels and Fortifications of the Vietnam War. Fortress 48. Osprey Pulishing Limited. New York, NY.

Schreiber, W. L., S. K. Billingsley, R. E. Schafer, J. G. Rogers, and E. W. Rounds. 1971. The identification, description, and evaluation of law enforecement command and control problems related to crowds and demonstrations Vol II. Submitted to the US Department of Justice Law Enforecement Assistance Administration. NCJRS 1972. https://www.ojp.gov/ncjrs/virtual-library/abstracts/identification-description-and-evaluation-law-enforcement-command

Spicknall, T. E. 1969. Civilian Repairs and Utilities in the Combat Zone. The Military Engineer. Vietnam Commemorative Issue. 74 - 77. First Published March-April 1969.

Star Tribune. 1972. Guard moves to ‘U’ after antiwar violence. Star Tribune (Minneapolis, Minnesota) 11 May 1972.

Tampa Bay Times. 1974. Abductor collects payment, slays two. Compiled from AP, UPI Wires. Tampa Bay Times (St. Petersburg, Florida), 18 July 1974.

Trump, D. J. 2020. Executive Order on Protecting American Monuments, Memorials, and Statues and Combating Recent Criminal Violence. 26 June 2020. https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-protecting-american-monuments-memorials-statues-combating-recent-criminal-violence/.

United Press International. 1968. Berkeley Violent. 31 August 1968.

United Press International. 1970. Ex-lawman shot because “not practical to arrest”. 13 October 1970.

United Press International. 1975a. In prison probe – US grand jury indicts officers. 28 January 1975. Sourced from the Sapulpa Daily News (Sapulpa Oklahoma) 28 January 1975.

United Press International. 1975b. US jury aquits prison guards. 11 July 1975. Sourced from the Sapulpa Daily News (Sapulpa Oklahoma) 11 July 1975.

United Press International. 1976. New Year’s Revelers, Police Clash. 2 January 1976. Sourced from the Tampa Tribune (Tampa, Florida) 2 January 1976.

United Press International. 1981. Prisoners moved after disturbance. 7 July 1981. Sourced from the Tallahassee Democrat (Tallahasee, Florida) 7 July 1981.

US Army. 1969. Operations Report Lesson Learned. Report 9-66.

US Army Corps of Engineers. 2003. How Army Engineers Cleared Viet Cong Tunnels. Historical Vignettes: Military Construction Combat 062. https://www.usace.army.mil/About/History/Historical-Vignettes/Military-Construction-Combat/062-Viet-Cong-Tunnels/

USTPO. 2018. General Ordnance Equipment Corporation: Pepper Fog. https://uspto.report/TM/72310456

The Rag. 1975. Oklahoma prison guards indicted in death of prisoner. Volume IX #17. 24 February 1975.

Tschenschlok, E. G. 1995. Long Road To Rebellion: Miami’s Liberty City Riot of 1968. Florida Atlantic University MA Thesis.

Wills, G. 1971. Tear Gas Tears. The Herald Statesman (Tonkers, New York) 7 April 1971.

Wilson, S. D. 1993. Coming home: the birth and spirit in america’s gulag. Chapter 7 in The American Indian in the White Man’s Prisons: A story of Genocide. A collective statement by Native American prisoners, former prisoners, and spiritual leaders of North America. Compiled and Edited by L. R. Reed.

Winter Soldier. 1975. McAlester. Winter Soldier Volume 5 Issue 2. February 1975.

Yetzer, C., B. Smith, P. Sheeran, L. Harris, and D. Pollock. 1971. Police use tear gas to break up fights at San Gorgonio High. The San Bernardino County Sun, 4 December 1971.

Photography Credits

Applegate, R. 1970. Demo image from Guns article. Source: Guns, September 1970 30-31.

Associated Press. 1969. Police use a pepper fogger and other weapons to clear a University plaza, Berkeley CA 2/21/1969. AP Wirephoto. 21 February 1969.

Associated Press. 1969. National guardsmen use a pepper fogger and other weapons on striking students, Berkeley CA 2/28/1969. AP Wirephoto. 28 February 1969.

Associated Press. 1969. View from behind of the police using a pepper fogger on striking students, Berkeley CA 2/28/1969. AP Wirephoto. 28 February 1969.

Associated Press. 1982. Police fogging striking workers, North Kingstown RI 3/22/1982. AP Wirephoto. 23 March 1982.

Brown, D. 2020. US DHS agent deploying chemical agent via thermal fogger, Portland OR 7/29/2020. https://twitter.com/dougbrown8/status/1288727075197657088/photo/1

Defense Technology. 2021. Product image for thermal fogger. https://www.defense-technology.com/product/pepper-fog-generator/

General Ordnance Equipment Corporation. 1968. Product image for thermal fogger. Sourced from Applegate, R. 1969. Riot Control - Materiel and Technique.

Lake, M. 2020. US DHS agent deploying chemical agent via thermal fogger, Portland OR, 10/17/2020. https://twitter.com/MasonLakePhoto/status/1317869903345414144

Lewis-Rolland, M. 2021. US DHS agent holding thermal fogger, Portland OR, 1/23/2021. https://twitter.com/MathieuLRolland/status/1353427314348986373/photo/1

Lewis-Rolland, M. 2021. US DHS agent deploying chemical agent via thermal fogger, Portland OR, 1/23/2021. https://twitter.com/MathieuLRolland/status/1353427325405126656/photo/3

Staab, M. 2021. US DHS holding thermal fogger, Portland OR, 1/20/2021. https://twitter.com/MaranieRae/status/1352394871080816641/photo/1

United Press International. 1968. Deployment of a thermal fogger by police in Berkeley CA, 8/31/1968. UPI Telephoto. 31 August 1968.

United Press International. 1971. Police use a pepper fogger on a crowd of students at San Gordonio High School, San Bernardino 1969. UPI Telephoto. 20 November 1969.

Unknown. Undated. Tunnel rat in a gas mask. Sourced from War History Online: https://www.warhistoryonline.com/instant-articles/the-tunnel-rats-vietnam-war.html

US Army. Undated. A soldier uses a backpack Mity Mite to fog a tunnel. Source: Military Notes, Military Review, August 1966.

US Army. 1969. Operations Report Lesson Learned. Report 9-66.

US Army Engineer School. Undated. Engineers unpack and test a Mitey-Mite blower in the Vietnamese jungle. The Army Engineer in Vietnam. Fort Belvoir, VA.